Nature has developed electricity-generating solar cells in green plants for photosynthesis. They had to be made of readily available materials that could be produced at ambient temperatures. Kinetic solar cells meet these criteria.
Kinetic solar cells do not work like silicon solar cells, which must maintain a thermodynamic potential gradient (an electric field in the p/n junction) to separate charges and generate electricity. They use molecules and materials that rectify the current so that electrons can only flow in one direction. Nature already implemented such a strategy in photosynthesis over two billion years ago. Dye solar cells, such as polymer solar cells, essentially work according to this principle. I have derived the mechanism of such cells from the fundamental principle of least action (Ref. 426).
The formula shows that the more effective the rectification of the electron flow works, the greater the energy yield of such solar cells. There is great potential for further developments in the biomimetic direction.